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Image credit: Ron Miller
Friends! This is a post about automotive valves. The valve implements a direct supply to the cylinders of a certain portion of the fuel-air mixture or only air, and also produces exhaust gases. A four-stroke internal combustion engine requires at least two valves per cylinder for normal operation
There are two types of valves, depending on their direct function:
Today, modern motors are fitted with Poppet valves, which have a rod. The valve device includes a so-called valve plate. The most common design of the engine received valves that are located in the cylinder head. The place where the valve contacts the main cylinder block is called the valve seat. The valve seat of the internal combustion engine is steel or cast iron, pressed into the cylinder head. The maximum quality filling of the engine cylinder with fuel-air mixture or air requires that the diameter of the intake valve plate is larger than that of the exhaust valve. Intake and exhaust valves have certain differences for this reason. The intake valve often gets a larger diameter of its plate. This is done in order to improve the filling of cylinders with fuel-air mixture or only air.
As for the exhaust valve, the need to increase the diameter of its plate is also present. It is necessary for a better cleaning of the cylinder from the combustion products. Note that the size of the plate inlet and exhaust valves is limited by the size of the combustion chamber, which is made in the cylinder head. High-quality cylinder filling and cleaning are realized not by increasing the diameter of the plate of one valve, but by installing more valves per cylinder. How many valves are there in Your car?
Sincerely Yuri Kovalenok
Close Up with the Rosette Nebula ✨🔭
The image is constructed from exposures in three very narrow (3nm) wavelength bands corresponding to the emission profiles of ionised Hydrogen, Oxygen and Sulphur to form the resulting detailed and brightly coloured scene.
Image Credit: Rolf Wahl Olsen
Let’s explore the cosmos!
#Ozone : Big warming => Small hole (episode 3️⃣)
#Question 3❗: “What made this year’s #OzoneHole so different⁉️”
It is true that the state of the #OzoneLayer 🌍 is greatly improving thanks to our efforts to ban #CFC’s, the molecules that make the reactions that break down ozone go so much faster. Unfortunately, we cannot say that the smaller ozone hole of 2019 is a result of this, and that it could be expected to continue like this from now on.
In a normal year, the #weather around the Antarctic region causes the #stratosphere to warm up during the Antarctic Spring, in what is called a “#SuddenStratosphericWarming” 🌡️. The change in temperature disrupts and weakens the #PolarVortex 🔄 at the end of November/ beginning of December, with the result that #air can freely move around and mix again. With the air no longer being trapped inside the vortex, the ozone hole dissipates: above the #Antarctic the ozone concentration increases back to normal, but above the Southern mid-latitudes (New Zealand, Australia, Chile, Argentina) the ozone concentration decreases temporarily. By the end of the year 🎅, the ozone hole has completely disappeared.
❗ This year, however, #UnusualWeather ⛅ caused this “sudden stratospheric warming above the Antarctic region” to happen much earlier. In fact, it happened right around the time when the ozone hole usually starts forming. The polar vortex was dislocated and weakened before it could gain much momentum 🐌 and the stratosphere was too warm for many clouds to form.
☝️ In short, instead of the #weather, #sunlight and #chemistry working together to form the ozone hole, the weather has been working #against the chemistry ▶️◀️, resulting in a much smaller, and slightly dislocated #OzoneHole 🕳️ (it stretches more toward South-America and doesn’t even cover a part of the Antarctic continent).
These are called Chladni Figures and they demonstrate two-dimensional standing waves.
Chladni figures When resonating, a plate or membrane is divided into regions that vibrate in opposite directions, bounded by lines where no vibration occurs (nodal lines).